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Knowledge of international container transport system (4) the characteristics of container transportation and markings

Knowledge of international container transport system (4) the characteristics of container transportation and markings

The characteristics of container transportation
     Common parts as a result of the existence of general cargo transportation has long been inefficient handling and transportation, long time and damage, cargo poor affect the quality of freight transport, freight complex procedure and efficiency, and therefore shippers, shipping companies and ports have an extremely cost-effective adverse negative impact. To address the use of general cargo transportation grocery parts there can not overcome the shortcomings of the above, practice has proved that only through the container transport, in order to completely solve the above problem.
     How to speed up the process of commodity circulation, reducing the flow of the cost of labor-saving logistics consumption, fast, low power, high efficiency and cost-effective production process to complete the transport and delivery of goods to the consignee destination, which requires changes mode of transport, making it an efficient, cost-effective and high quality transport modes of transport, and container transport, is such a mode of transport. It has the following features.
     First, cost-effective mode of transport
     High economic efficiency of container transport is mainly reflected in the following aspects:
     1. Simplified packaging, a large number of cost-saving package. In order to avoid the goods were damaged in transit, there must be a solid package, and has a solid container, sealing characteristics, which in itself is an excellent packaging. To simplify the use of container packaging, some do not even have to packaging, grocery items without the packaging to achieve the transport, packaging costs can be substantial savings.
     2. Goods to reduce the damage difference and improve the quality of freight. As the container is sealed in a strong box, container itself is a solid package. Goods packing and seals, the way there is no need devanning set down, one vote in the end, even after long-distance transportation or more change, not easy to damage the goods inside. Moving containers to reduce theft of lost, wet, and defacement caused worse damage and cargo by cargo owners and shipping companies, and goods as a result of damage to reduce the gap, reducing the waste of social wealth, but also has great social benefits.
     3. Reduce operating costs, lower transportation costs, largely as a result of loading and unloading containers from the impact of adverse weather conditions, ship berthing time for non-productive and efficient as a result of loading and unloading, loading and unloading time of shipping companies, the rate of increase of navigation, reduce shipping costs, the port that can be adopted to increase berth capacity, thereby enhancing the throughput, and increase revenue.
     Second, efficient mode of transport
     The traditional mode of transport links with the loading and unloading, and labor-intensive, inefficient handling, shipping and other shortcomings of the slow turnover. And container transport has changed the situation completely.
     First of all, the general cargo handling, general 35t per hour, while loading and unloading of containers, up to 400t per hour or so, a substantial increase working efficiency. At the same time, container loading and unloading as a result of the high level of mechanization, which required each team of workers handling the number of small, average labor productivity per worker increased substantially.
     In addition, the efficiency of container handling as a result of high climate impact by a small ship in Hong Kong significantly reduce residence time and thus shorten the time the ship voyage, the ship to speed up the turnover, greatly enhance the rate of navigation, marine productivity increases, thereby, increased shipping the capacity of vessels without increasing the number of ships may be more traffic, increase the number of corporate income, so that high efficiency leads to high efficiency.
     Third, high investment mode of transport
     Although the container transport is a highly efficient mode of transport, but it also is a highly capital intensive industry. First of all, shipping companies and container ships need to carry out large sums of investment. According to the data show that for every cubic feet of container ships general cargo ships cost about 3.7 to 4 times. Considerable investment in the container, the container transport to carry out the high investment required, making the total cost of the shipping companies in a large fixed-cost ratio as high as more than two-thirds.
     Secondly, the container shipping port in the investment likely to be considerable. Dedicated container berths of the terminal facilities, including terminals and front line, the freight yard and freight station, maintenance workshop, the control tower, gatehouse, as well as container handling machinery, costly.
     Furthermore, in order to carry out multimodal transport containers needed in a time when the corresponding facilities and inland freight stations, in order to support the building, which requires the construction, expansion, alteration, update the existing roads, railways, bridges, culverts, etc. This investment is amazing! Can be seen that there are insufficient funds to carry out container transport, containerization is difficult to achieve, and must be based on national capability, and finally the realization of containerization.
     Fourth, high-coordination mode of transport
     Covers a wide range of container transport, links and more influence, is a complex of Transportation Systems Engineering. Container transportation system, including maritime, land transport, air transport, ports, container freight stations as well as transport-related customs, commodity inspection, ship agents, freight forwarders and other units and departments. If the co-ordinated properly, the whole transport system will affect the function, if a link failure will affect the overall situation, and even lead to stagnation and disruption of transportation and production. Therefore, the requirement to do a good job in every link of the whole transport system, the high degree of collaboration between departments.

V. Organization for multimodal transport
     As a result of container transportation in the change between different modes of transport, the cargo box removal Needless just change the container, and this change improved the operating efficiency of different transport modes for the joint between the transport. Change when in transit, customs and the relevant regulatory unit inspection letters only to seal or release, resulting in improved transport efficiency.
     In addition, international container transport and multimodal transport is a capital-intensive, technology-intensive and management of demanding industries, transport is a complex systematic project, which requires the management of personnel, technical personnel, operational personnel have a high quality be competent to give full play to the superiority of international container transportation.

     The relationship between the container transport people
     With the progressive development of container transport, mature, corresponding different from the traditional mode of transport management and development of appropriate institutions, so as to form a container transport to adapt to the characteristics of the transport system.


     1. Containerized cargo business of the actual carrier transport. Including the operation of container transport shipping companies, associated companies, highway container transportation companies, airlines and so on container transportation company.
     2. NVOCC. In container transport.└┐╗§operation of container freight, packing, devanning, inland transportation and transit point for business or inland terminal business, but do not have the means of delivery of professional bodies, known as NVOCC. Carrier and shipper in the middle of a bridge between the plays.
     3. Container leasing companies. This is the development of container transportation with the rise of a new industry. It specializes in container rental business.
     4. Transport protection and indemnity association. A shipping company from mutual insurance organizations, may be on the container transport for all damage suffered by the insured to conduct a comprehensive reunification. This is after the development of container transport by the new insurance organizations.
     5. Container Terminal (yard) operator. Is specific for the loading and unloading containers at the pier, transfer custody of the department, which by the shipper or his agent and the carrier or its agent to provide a variety of container transport services.
     6. Container Freight Station (Container Freight Station, CFS). Comparison of the inland transport of large and medium-sized cities to facilitate the provision of container transfer, transit, or other specialized transportation services, places.
     7. Owner.

     Container tags

     In order to facilitate the flow of container and use in the identification and management, to facilitate the preparation of documents and information transmission, so the International Organization for Standardization to develop a container tag, the standard that "the container code, identification and marking" (ISO6346-1981 (E)).
     The provisions of the International Organization for Standardization tags are required two types of tags and tag-on-demand, each type of tag and tag, respectively, marking and operation. Specifically, the container has the main code box; box number or order number, check number; container size and type of code.

1, an essential marker
     1) the identification mark. It includes the main box on behalf of good order and check the figures.
     (1) the main code box. Provisions of the International Organization for Standardization, box, code-named by the four main Latin uppercase letters, the top three from the main box itself, the fourth letter U that will be used.
     (2) the order, and also known as box number, from six Arab letters. Such as the small number of not 6, then the digits before the "0" less than six. Such as "053842."
     (3) to check his figures. Check the figures are used to me the main code and the sequence number based on accurate records. It is located in box number, plus one in a box that Arabic numerals.
     2) operating tag.

     It includes the following three elements:
     (1) weight and self-rated weight marker. Rated container that is the total weight of heavy, self-respect that is the quality of the container empty (or empty weight), ISO688 requirements should be based on kilograms (kg) and pounds (lb) also said.
     (2) the air-land water transport container tag. Due to the strength of the container stacking only two layers. International Organization for Standardization thus provides for a special container for the logo, the logo is black, the side wall and end wall is located in the upper left corner, and the minimum size requirements for markers: high-127mm, length 355mm, height of the font tag letters at least 76mm.
     (3) board of electric shock top box warning tag. The colored tags at the end of feeding yellow triangle in the general tank and the top box at the top of the escalator in order to board the body has warned the risk of electric shock.
     2, video-on-demand tag

     1) identification marking
     It includes (1), code-named countries and regions, such as China CN; the United States to US
     (2) the size and type of code (box code).
     2) operating tag.
     It includes (1) ultra-high mark, the mark in a yellow mark at the end of the black figures and borders, the tag attached to the container on each side of the lower-left corner, about 0.6m away from the bottom, the same time, the tag affixed to the bottom of the main container . Where more than 2.6m high container should be affixed to this marker.
     (2) International Union of Railways tag. Where consistent with the "International Union of Railways be out" the provisions of the container, this tag can be. The signs are in the European railway transport container traffic signs necessary.
     3, peer-marking
     Container during transport, the smooth adoption of or access to it in transit, boxes must be affixed in accordance with the requirements of various traffic signs, or cumbersome to apply for certification procedures, the extension of the container turn-around time.
     Container traffic on the major labeled; safety approval plate, container approved license to deal with pest control board, check and International Union of Railways logo markings.


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