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Knowledge of international container transport system (3) the definition of containers, standard and type of container

Knowledge of international container transport system (3) the definition of containers, standard and type of container

                                       The definition of container
     
     With regard to the definition of container, over the years, experts and scholars at home and abroad there are some differences. Is to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) on the container to make the following definition, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) under the container is defined as "the container is a transport equipment should meet the following requirements:
    
     (1) has the durability, strength of its strong enough to re-use;
   
     (2) to facilitate the delivery of specially designed products, and in one or more modes of transport in no way change transportation;

     (3) with easy handling and removal of the device, in particular, to facilitate transfer from one mode of transport to another mode of transport;
  
     (4) to facilitate the design should be noted that air cargo loaded or unloaded;
   
     (5) the contents of the plot of 1 m or more than one square meters.
   
     Container does not include vehicles or conventional packaging.
  
     At present, China, Japan, the United States, France and other countries concerned, have introduced a comprehensive definition of the International Organization for Standardization. In addition to the definition of ISO, there are "Customs Convention on Containers" (CCC), "International Convention for Safe Containers" (CSC), the United Kingdom National Institute of Standards and North America such as the Pacific container liner conferences under the definition, content is basically more or less the same. China's national standard GB1992-85 "container name of the term" in the definition quoted above.

     Standard container
  
     In order to effectively carry out the international multimodal transport container, we must strengthen the standardization of container, should further improve the standardization of container. The use of container in accordance with sub-standard, there are international standards, national standards, regional standards and standards of the four companies.
  
     1. International standards for container

     Means in accordance with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) section 104 of the Technical Committee to develop international standards to the construction and use of internationally accepted standard containers.
    
     Standardization of a container through the development process. ISO/TC104 International Organization for Standardization Technical Committee since 1961 since the establishment of international standards for the container had several added that changes and amendments to existing international standards for the 1 Series a total of 13 species, are the same width (2438mm), length There are four (12192mm, 9125mm, 6058mm, 2991mm), height of four (2896mm, 2591mm, 2438mm, 2438mm).

     2. National standards for container
    
     Governments in the light of international standards and to consider their specific circumstances, and to develop national standards for the container.
  
     The current national standard "container external dimensions and weight rating" (GB1413-85) in various types of external container size, and the rated weight limit of deviation.

     3. Container Area Standards

     Standards for such containers is determined by regional organizations in accordance with the special circumstances of the region developed, such container only for the region. Such as the International Union of Railways under the European (VIC) standards set by the container and construction container.

     4. Standard container
  
     Some large container shipping companies, according to the company's specific circumstances and conditions and the development of standards for container shipping companies, such cartons of the company mainly in the use of transport. Such as the United States land and sea 35ft container companies.

     In addition, the current world there are many non-standard containers. Non-standard length containers, such as the United States's 35ft sea containers, shipping company president 45ft and 48ft containers; non-standard height of the container, there are two 9.5ft height of 9ft and container; non-standard width of the container have a container, such as the width of 8.2ft. As the economic driver, the world's total 20ft container 24ft weighing more and more, and was generally well received.
  
     The type of container
  
     With the development of container transport, to meet the loading needs of different types of goods, which appeared in different types of containers. These containers not only look different, but the structure, strength, size is not the same. According to the use of different containers and divided into the following.

     1. Dry container (Dry Cargo Container)

     Grocery, also known as container, which is a generic container to carry liquid cargo in addition to the need to adjust the temperature of goods and special cargo other than the general grocery items. The use of such a wide range of container, commonly used with two 20ft and 40ft, the structure is characterized by its often closed, the general has at one end or the side door.
  
     2. Open Top Container (Open Top Container)
  
     Also known as open-top container, which is a rigid box is not the top of the container, but can be folded-style canvas roof supported by beams, plastic sheeting or cloth made of roof coating, and other components similar to the cargo container. Open-top container for carrying large cargo and higher lifting heavy cargo to be.

3. Taiwan container frame and the platform (Platform Based COntainer)
   
     Taiwan is no box container frame roof and wall, and even some even end wall is also removed and only the bottom of the container and four prism.
  
     Taiwan there are many types of container frame. Their main characteristics: In order to maintain its vertical strength, bottom thick. Bottom of large container than ordinary strength, and its internal height lower than the average container. The next beam and the prism on the side with the Department of Central, can be loaded with cargo tie-down. Taiwan is not watertight container frame, and not afraid of wet cargo shipment for loading the goods of varying shapes.

     Taiwan-style container can be divided into: open side of the Taiwan frame, full frame Desk Rack, a complete fixed-end wall of the Taiwan style, for no reason, only a fixed prism and the bottom frame of container, such as Taiwan.
  
     Platform container is not only the upper floor of a container structure. To facilitate the loading and unloading containers, suitable for carrying a long, major pieces.

     4. Ventilated containers (Ventilated Container)
  
     General ventilation in the lateral wall of the container or side wall with ventilation holes, suitable for loading ventilation do not need to be refrigerated to preventº¹Êªof goods, such as fruits, vegetables and so on. If the vents closed, the container can be used as a grocery.

     5. Refrigerated container (Reefer Container)
    
     This is specifically for the transport requirements to maintain a certain temperature or low temperature of frozen goods designed cargo container. It is divided into the freezer with built-mechanical refrigeration freezer containers and no external mechanical refrigerated containers. Applicable load of meat, fruit and other goods. High cost of refrigerated containers, higher operating costs, the use of refrigeration equipment should be paid attention to the technical requirements of state and the temperature inside the cargo.
    
     6. Bulk Container (Bulk Container)
    
     Apart from bulk containers outside the box, in the box at the top also has a 2 ~ 3 months of loading port for loading powder or granular goods. When used to keep the box clean, smooth on both sides to maintain and easy unloading of goods from the door.
   
     7. Animal container (Pen COntainer)
    
     This is a special container for the shipment of livestock. In order to achieve good ventilation, with a metal mesh wall box manufacturing, cleaning the mouth with the bottom wall and floor drains and a feeding device.
    
     8. Tank Container (Tank Container)
    
     This is a liquid for shipment of cargo containers and set up, such as alcohol, oil and liquid chemicals and other goods. It is the framework of the tank and the tank is composed of two parts, the time of loading of goods from the tank into the hole at the top of loading, unloading, waiting by the outflow of goods or hole-hole from the top loading aspiration.
   
     9. Container car (Car Container)
    
     This is a small car specifically for the shipment and container design and manufacturing. The characteristics of its structure is no wall, only the bottom with the framework and can be loaded with one or two-tier car.
    
     As the container in transit often affected by various forces and the environment, therefore the manufacture of container materials have enough stiffness and strength, should be as far as possible the quality of light, high strength, durability, low maintenance costs of materials and materials not only cheap but also easy to obtain.
   
     At present, the world's widely used classification of the container according to the main materials are:
    
     1. Steel container
    
     Its framework and boxes are made with steel siding. The biggest advantage is the high intensity, firm structure, welding and water, and low prices, easy to repair, not damage, the main drawback is that since the major, poor corrosion resistance.
    
     2. Aluminum containers
    
     Aluminum containers, there are two: one for the steel plate; another at both ends of a steel framework only, and the rest with aluminum. The main advantage is light weight, non-rust silicon divination table appearance, good elasticity, easy deformation, the main disadvantage is high cost, easily damaged by the collision.
    
     3. Stainless steel container
    
     General multi-purpose stainless steel tank. The main advantage of stainless steel container is high intensity, do not rust, decay resistance, and the shortcomings of the investment.
    
     4. Glass steel container
    
     Glass fiber reinforced plastic container to fit in the steel framework of the glass fiber reinforced plastic composite plate consisting of. The main advantage is the insulation, and corrosion and chemical resistance are better, Dayong strength (good, can withstand greater stress, easy to clean, repair is simple, the larger volume of container, etc.; major drawback is that the larger weight, higher cost.

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