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Knowledge of international container transport system (2) an overview of multimodal transport

Knowledge of international container transport system (2) an overview of multimodal transport


An overview of the international inter-modal container

International container transport is a modern mode of transport. With traditional grocery items compared to bulk transport, it has a high transport efficiency, good economic returns and the characteristics of excellent quality of service. For this reason, the container transportation in the world has been rapid development, has become the world of international trade to ensure the optimal mode of transport. In particular, after decades of development, with the set of container transport hardware and software technology reaching maturity, to 80 during the container transport has entered the era of international multimodal transport. International multimodal transport is a container for the use of intermodal transport the new organization. It is through the use of land, sea and air transport means two or more to complete the continuity of the international carriage of goods, thus breaking the last sea, rail, air a single coherent mode of transport for non-traditional practices. Today, the provision of quality services to the international multimodal transport has become the container transport operators to enhance their competitiveness, an important means.

First, the definition of international multimodal transport and characteristics of

International Multimodal Transport (MultimodaI Transport) is a comprehensive transport goods in order to achieve optimum efficiency of the transport form of organization goals. It usually is the container for the transport units, different modes of transport will be organically combined, constitute a continuous, comprehensive and integrated freight transport. Through a consignment, a billing, a document, an insurance carrier by the common transport section to complete the entire process of goods transport, the entire process is about to transport the goods as a complete organization of a single transport process. However, it is with the traditional single mode of transport and very different. According to the 1980 "United Nations Convention on International Multimodal Transport of Goods" (referred to as "multimodal transport convention") and in 1997 the Ministry of Railways Ministry of Communications and China jointly promulgated the "rules of international container multimodal transport" is defined, the international multimodal transport is means "in accordance with the multimodal transport contract to at least two different modes of transport, multimodal transport operator from delivering the goods from the territory of a State to take over the location of the goods shipped to a designated area on the territory of another State delivery of cargo."

According to the definition in light of international practice can be drawn, which constitute the international multimodal transport must have the following characteristics or basic conditions:

(1) must have a multimodal transport contract. The multimodal transport contract is between the operator and the shipper rights, obligations, responsibilities and immunities of the nature of the contractual relationship and the determination of transport, multimodal transport is the difference between the goods and the general based on the main mode of transport.

(2) must use a multimodal transport document the entire process. The documents should meet the needs of different transport modes, and a single freight rate freight of the whole collection.

(3) must be at least two different modes of transport for the transport.

(4) must be the international carriage of goods. This is not only from domestic goods transportation, international transport mainly involves the application of laws and regulations.

(5) must be of a multimodal transport operator is responsible for the carriage of goods of the whole. The multimodal transport operator is not only the parties to the contract entered into multimodal transport, multimodal transport document is issued by the person. Of course, in the multimodal transport operator as provided for implementation of multimodal transport contract responsibility, in whole or in part can be entrusted to transport others (sub-carrier) was completed and entered into the contract delivery points. However, sub-delivered the contract between the carrier and the shipper of any contractual relationship does not exist.

This shows that the main features of international multimodal transport is that by the multimodal transport operator to the shipper to sign a full contract of carriage Unity transport, the implementation of the whole transport in one consignment, a single in the end, the first charges, a unified whole is responsible for claims and . It is a convenience for the purpose of the shipper and the owner of the Carriage of Goods by advanced forms of organization.

Second, the superiority of international multimodal transport

International multimodal transport is a high-level than the transport section of the transport forms of organization, not the 20th century, the United States during the first 60 pilot multimodal transport operations, were welcomed by the owner. Subsequently, the International Multimodal Transport in North America, Europe and the Far East began to use; the 20th century, 80's, the international multimodal transport in developing countries has been gradually implemented. At present, international multimodal transport has become an important new international container transport modes, by the international shipping community in general importance. In May 1980 in Geneva, United Nations Conference on the Convention on International Multimodal Transport meeting produced a "United Nations Convention on International Multimodal Transport." The Convention will be ratified in 30 countries and entered into force one year after accession. It will be the entry into force of the future development of international multimodal transport have a positive impact.

International multimodal transport is the future direction of the development of international transport, this is because the international multimodal transport container has many advantages, mainly in the following areas:

(1) simplify the shipping, clearing and settlement procedures, saving manpower, material and related costs: in the international multimodal transport mode) no matter how far away from the carriage of goods by several modes of transport together, and regardless of how many goods in transit conversion, all matters by the multimodal transport operator is responsible for. And the shipper for shipment only, entered into a contract of carriage, a cost, one insurance, the shipper for shipment in order to save a lot of inconvenience procedures. At the same time, as a result of the use of a multimodal transport document, unified billing, and thus simplify the system of single-and settlement procedures, to save human and material resources, in addition, once the damage occurred during transport cargo poor people by the multimodal transport operator Transport is responsible for the entire process, which also simplifies the claims process, reduce claims costs.

(2) to shorten the transit time of goods to reduce inventory, lower freight differential accident damage and improve the quality of freight transport: the way in the international multimodal transport, the various transport links and a variety of modes of transport with close, compact convergence, the goods went rapid transit in time, greatly reducing the goods stay in transit, thus fundamentally guarantee the goods safe, rapid, accurate, and reach their destination in a timely manner, and thus a corresponding reduction in inventories of goods and inventory costs. At the same time, the Department of the adoption of inter-modal container transport units for the direct transport, although the subject had changed the way freight, but because of the use of professional mechanical handling, and do not mess with the goods involved, and cargo damage incidents have dropped significantly worse, so in a very large extent, improved the quality of goods transport.

(3) to lower transportation costs, saving all kinds of expenditure: multimodal transport can be implemented as a result of door-to-door transportation, cargo owners and therefore, in the goods can be made after the first carrier transportation documents and to exchange, time in order to advance the settlement. This is not only to speed up the occupation of the capital flow of goods, but also to reduce interest expenses. In addition, since the goods were to lose in the container, and therefore in a sense, the goods may be a corresponding savings of packaging, cargo handling and insurance costs.

(4) to improve transport management, to achieve the rationalization of transport: For the section of transport, as a result of the operation of various means of transportation for people from the government, its own system, thus the scope of its business is restricted, limited cargo accordingly. Once transported by different operators to participate in multimodal transport, the scope of the operation can be greatly expanded, as well as to maximize the role of its existing equipment, organizations, choose the best rationalization of transport routes of transport.

(5) Other roles: from the Government's point of view, the development of international multimodal transport has the following significance: It is conducive to strengthening the Government's transport of goods to the entire chain of supervision and management; ensure their own throughout the course of the carriage of goods with greater with the proportion of freight revenue; contribute to the introduction of new advanced transportation technologies; reduce foreign exchange expenditure; to improve their utilization of infrastructure; the adoption of national macro-control and guidance functions to ensure that minimum damage to the environment of their own mode of transport to protect the ecological environment目的.

Third, the international multimodal transport organization

International multimodal transport is the use of two or more different transport modes of transport to intermodal forms of organization. Here, at least two modes of transport could be: the land and sea, land and air, sea and air. This is a general sea, land and land, air and other forms of transport are essentially different. Although the latter is also the transport, it is still the same mode of transport between the means of transport. As we all know, the various modes of transport have their own advantages and disadvantages. In general, the water transport capacity with a large, low-cost advantages; road transport has a flexible, easy to achieve the transport of goods door-to-Q characteristics of the major advantages of rail transport is not subject to the climate impact of land-locked and cross-depth inland of time to achieve long-distance transport of goods; and air transport is the main advantage of the realization of the rapid transport of goods. International multimodal transport as a result of stringent requirements must be more than two and two modes of transport to transport, this form of transport utilization of various modes of transport to the merits of fully reflect the large-scale socialized production traffic characteristics.

Due to the international multimodal transport with other forms of organization unparalleled superiority, so that new technologies of international transport in the world's major countries and regions has been an extensive application. At present, representative national multimodal transport mainly the Far East / Europe, Far East / North America, such as land, sea and air transport, and its form of organization include:

1. Sea-Land Orient

Land and sea transport for international multimodal transport is the main form of organization, but also the Far East / Europe, multimodal transport, one of the major forms of organization. The current organization and operation of the Far East / Europe, land and sea transport operations are mainly Sanlian Group of liner conferences, the North Netherlands, Crown Air and Maersk of Denmark and other international shipping companies, as well as non-liner conferences of China Ocean Shipping Company, the Taiwan shipping company Evergreen and Germany, such as the Asian shipping companies. This form of organization in order to shipping as the main body, to issue through bills of lading, and the inland route at both ends of the transport sector to carry out transport operations, transport bridge with the mainland to compete.

2. Land bridge transport

In the international multimodal transport, the land bridge transport (Land Bridge Service) plays an important role. It is the Far East / Europe, the main form of international multimodal transport. The so-called land bridge refers to the use of container transport is a special train or truck, the transcontinental railway or highway as the middle of a "bridge" to the mainland at both ends of the container shipping routes with a special train or truck to link up a coherent mode of transport. He strictly speaking, a land bridge for Transport is also a form of land and sea transport. Only because of international multimodal transport in the unique position on this will be their individual organizations as a form of transport. At present, the Far East / Europe transport routes are the Siberian land bridge land bridge and bridge the North American continent.

(1) of the Siberian Continental Bridge (Siberian Landbridge)

Siberian Continental Bridge (SLB) is the use of international standard containers, shipping the goods from the Far East to the eastern Russian port, and then across the Eurasian continent by the West fear the railway transported to Australia, such as the Baltic coast of Estonia in Tallinn or Riga, Latvia, such as ports, and then by rail, road or sea transport to Europe across the transport routes of international multimodal transport. Siberian Continental Bridge in 1971 the entire former Soviet Union formally established National Foreign Trade Transportation Corporation. Cargo throughout the year is now up to 100,000 standard containers (TEU), up to a maximum of 150,000 TEUs. The use of this land bridge transport operators mainly Japan, China and European countries freight forwarders. Among them, Japan's exports of the European grocery V3, European exports of the Asian grocery 1 / 5 by the transport bridge. From this we can see the Eurasia continent in the communication, the promotion of international trade in which an important place.

Transport, including the Siberian Continental Bridge, "Iron Iron Sea", "sea Iron Sea" and "the sea of public iron" and the "sea of public space" such as the four modes of transport. Transit from Russia's Corporation (SOJUZTRANSIT) as chief operator, it has a permit issued by the rights of transit goods, and the whole issue of a unified transportation bill of lading, to assume full responsibility for transport. As for participation in the transport section of the transport, then the use of "complementary care, forwarding" relay manner throughout the transport task. It can be said that the Siberian Continental Bridge is more typical of a multimodal transit lines. Siberian Continental Bridge is the world's longest land bridge transportation line. It greatly shortened from Japan, the Far East, Southeast Asia and Oceania to Europe, the transport distance, and thus save transport time. From the Far East via Russia to Europe along the Pacific coast port of the bridge a total length of transportation lines 13000km. The corresponding distance of the whole water transport (via the Suez Canal) is about 20000km. Yokohama, Japan, to Europe from Rotterdam, the use of land bridge transportation can not only shorten the distance 1 / 3, the transport time can save 1 / 2. In addition, under normal circumstances, the transport costs can also save 20% ~ 30%, so the owner have its own appeal.

Siberian mainland as a result of the advantages of a bridge, which with its growing popularity with the Japanese fear, but also attract a lot of the Far East, Southeast Asia and Oceania region to Europe, transport, fear of Villa West bridge in just a few years time China had developed rapidly. However, the Siberian Continental Bridge in the operation of the management of transport problems such as lack of port capacity, rail vehicles, less than container, box of a serious imbalance between the flow and the effects of cold weather to some extent hindered its development. In particular, with the Lan-Xin Railway and China's Sino-Kazakhstan border territories of the Western Railway line, a new "Eurasian Continental Bridge," the formation of the Far East to Europe has provided the international multimodal transport container and a convenient route to the West be afraid of Australia faces a severe continental bridge competition.

(2) bridge the North American continent (North American Landbridge)

Bridge, the North American continent is the largest railroad in North America to use the Far East to Europe from the "sea land and sea" Joint far. The land bridge land bridge transport, including the United States and Canada, Continental Bridge Transport transportation. Bridge the continental United States there are two transport routes: one is from the western to the eastern Pacific coast of the Atlantic Coast Line railway and road transport; the other is from the western Gulf of Mexico along the Pacific coast to the south-eastern coast line of rail and road transport. Bridge in the continental United States by the operation by the end of 1971 Far East / Europe routes shipping companies and rail carriers to offer "sea land and sea" multimodal transport line, and later also the United States several liner operation. At present, there are four main business groups桥至the Far East by the continental United States on international multimodal transport operations in Europe. These groups are the identity of the operator, the issuance of the multimodal transport document, is responsible for the entire transport. Canada continental bridge and the bridge is similar to the continental United States, by shipping companies shipping goods to Vancouver by rail to Montreal or Halifax, and then connected with the Atlantic ocean.

Bridge, the North American continent is the world's oldest and most influential, the most extensive range of services of a land bridge transportation line. According to statistics, from the Far East to the east coast of North America about 50% of the goods is more than double-decker trains for transport, because this bridge mode of transport than the entire process faster water usually 1 ~ 2 weeks. For example, the container cargo from Japan to Europe, Rotterdam, Tokyo, Hong Kong, the use of the whole water transport (via the Panama Canal or the Suez Canal) it normally takes about 5 ~ 6 weeks, and the use of North American land bridge transport only about three weeks time.

With the United States and Canada successfully bridge the transport operation, also carried out other areas of the North American mainland bridge transport. Continental Bridge Mexico (Mexican Land bridge) is one of them. The bridge across the Tehuantepec Isthmus (Isthmus Tehuantepec), connecting the Pacific coast of Salinas Puerto De La Cruz and the Gulf of Mexico coast boast boast arcos Review Hong Kong, the land from the 182 n mile. Mexico continental bridge began operating in 1982, the current limited scope of its services to other ports and transport implications of the bridge is also very small.

Bridge in the North American continent before the strong competition, the Panama Canal can be said to be one of the biggest losers. With the North American west coast, a land bridge to carry out transport services, many carriers from the start of construction of the Panama Canal size limitations-Panamax vessels (Post-Panamax Ship), in order to renounce the use of the Panama Canal. Can be expected, as the land bridge transport efficiency and the continuous improvement of economy, the Panama Canal will be in a more disadvantageous position.

(3) other forms of land bridge transportation

Transport in North America includes not only the land bridge land bridge transportation, but also transport a small bridge (Minibridge) and micro-bridge for Transport (Microbridge) and other forms of transport organizations. Figure 84 that the land bridge in North America constitute the basic transport system.

Small land bridge transportation organization point of view from the bridge with the mainland there is no major difference between the transport, but its delivery of the goods destined for ports along the coast. At present, the small land bridge in North America are mainly transported by the North American Pacific coast of Japan to the Atlantic coast and the Gulf of Mexico region's container cargo port. Of course, carried from Europe to the United States and the West and the Gulf region of the Atlantic port of transhipment cargo routes. Small bridge in North America to shorten the transport distance, the effect of transport time savings are significant. Japan / US-East route, traders from the whole water transport to New York (via the Panama Canal) routes from 9700 n mile, transit time of 21 ~ 24 days. The use of small land bridge transport, the transport distance and only 7400 n mile, transit time 16 days, can save about 1 weeks time.

Micro-bridge transport and transport is basically similar to the small land bridge, but its place of delivery in the inland regions. Micro-bridge in North America refers to transport by the North American East and West Coast and Gulf Coast ports to the United States, Canada, inland transportation service region. With a small land bridge in North America transportation development, the emergence of new conflicts, mainly reflected in: If the goods from around the east coast of mainland cities to the Far East (or the reverse), first of all domestic traffic through to the domestic bill of lading to the East Coast to pay the shipping company, and then issued by the shipping companies other exports from the east coast of international cargo documents, and then transported to domestic traffic through the west coast port, and then shipping to the Far East. Owner of the view that such transport can not be directly from the Mainland to the international freight forwarding documents to the West Coast ports in transit, not only increase costs and delays in transportation time. To solve this problem, micro-bridge transportation came into being. And out of the United States, Canada inland city transport of goods using micro-bridge can save transport time, but also the avoidance of double port charges, thus saving costs. For example, between Japan and the United States east of the inland city of Pittsburgh cargo containers, shipping from Japan to the U.S. West Coast ports, such as Auckland, and then transport by rail directly to Pittsburgh, it can be completely avoided in Philadelphia to enter the United States east of the port, thus saving in the Hong Kong port expenses.

3. Sea and air transport

Sea and air transport and air bridge is also known as the Transport (Airbridge Service). Organizations in the transport modes, air transport and a land bridge bridge different transport: a land bridge across the freight transport using the same container, do not change, and the air bridge to transport the goods are usually in the airport for air into the container. However. The two share a common goal, that is, low rates to provide fast, reliable transportation services.

Sea and air transport began in the 60's way, but only the larger 80's development. This mode of transport, transport time less than the full shipping, air transport costs cheaper than the whole, the 20th century, 60's, the Far East shipping goods to the U.S. West Coast, then transported by air to the United States inland areas or the United States east coast, thus a sea and air transport. Of course, this form of transport is sea, but the final delivery by the air transport section of commitment by the end of 1960, the airlines of the former Soviet Union opened up Siberia to Europe by air lines, in 1968, Air Canada participated in the international multi - Wan-style, 80's, there has been through Hong Kong, Singapore, and Thailand to the European air routes.

At present, the international sea and air transport routes are:

(1) the Far East one of Europe: At present, the Far East and European routes between Vancouver, Seattle, Los Angeles for the interim, there have been to Hong Kong, Bangkok, for the transit to Vladivostok. In addition to San Francisco, Singapore for transit.

(2) a Central and South America the Far East: In recent years, the Far East to Central and South American sea and air transport developed rapidly, because here the port and inland transport of instability, so the sea and air transport demand. The transport line to Miami, Los Angeles, Vancouver for the transit.

(3) one in the Far East Near East, Africa, Australia: This is Hong Kong, Bangkok, for the transit to the Near East, Africa, the transport services. In exceptional circumstances, as well as by the Marseille to Africa, to India via Bangkok, via Hong Kong to Australia, such as transportation routes, but these lines of smaller cargo.

Generally speaking, the transport distance farther, the use of sea and air transport of the superiority of the greater, as compared with the full use of maritime transport, the transport time is even shorter. With the direct use of air as compared to lower its rates. Therefore, starting from the Far East to Europe. Central and South America and Africa as a major sea and air transport market is appropriate.

Fourth, China's international multimodal transport

In recent years, for the application and with the development of China's foreign trade, transportation needs, our country of certain countries and regions have begun to approach the application of international multimodal transport. At present, China has carried out the main routes for international multimodal transport, including shipping to and from the Mainland of China by the Japanese mainland, the mainland United States, the African mainland, the mainland of Western Europe, the Australian mainland, such as transportation routes, as well as Mongolia or the former Soviet Union to Iran and from the West, the Nordic national transport Siberian Continental Bridge. Siberian Continental Bridge which container shipping business developed rapidly, the current year remained at about 10,000 TEUs, for the Siberian Continental Bridge in China mainly transport iron / iron (Transrail). Rail / Sea (Transea), iron / card (Tracons) in three ways.

In addition to the above has been carried out by transport routes, the new line is the continuous development of transport, including the world-renowned New Eurasian Continental Bridge (Eurasia Bridge).

September 12, 1990, with China and Lan-Xin Railway West Kazakhstan railway line but the earth, connecting the second Asia-Europe continental bridge linking formal. The new Eurasian Continental Qiaodong Lianyungang, China, west to Rotterdam, the Netherlands, but through Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, however, the Kyrgyz Adams, however, but塔吉克斯, Russia, Belarus, Poland, Germany and the Netherlands and other countries, a total length of 10900km. Asia-Europe land bridge to the international multimodal transport has provided a convenient channel for the international. Far East to Western Europe, by the New Eurasian Continental Bridge over the entire ocean through the Suez Canal route, shortening the distance 8000km; than through the Panama Canal to shorten the distance 11000km. Far East to Central Asia, in the Near East, by the New Eurasian Continental Bridge by the Siberian Continental Bridge than to shorten the distance 2700km ~ 3300km. The opening of a land bridge transportation line will help ease the Siberian Continental Bridge capacity tight. New Eurasian Continental Bridge in China after the Longhai, a new two-Lan railway lines, a total length of 4131km. In Xu Zhou, Zhengzhou, Luoyang, Baoji, Lanzhou, respectively, with China's Beijing-Shanghai, Beijing-Guangzhou, Jiao Liu, Bao-Cheng, Bao-Lan railway lines and other important links with the hinterland (as shown). New Eurasian Continental Bridge operating in 1993. Thus, large areas of Asia to Europe, the Middle East may be shipping goods to China Lianyungang on the bridge, a border post in western China after Alashankou to enter the country Kazakhstan Druzhba border station installed by the Commonwealth of Independent States transported to the border railway station, port, and then by rail, road, sea, following delivery to Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe and the Near and Middle East countries. And Europe, the Near East countries in the Asia region to the goods may be entered by the CIS railway station in China's western border Alashankou change, the railway transported to Lianyungang China, the sub-vessels, following delivery to Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan and the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia and other countries and regions. (Small bell)





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